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During high water stages, the Pivka River, which is part of the basin of the karstic river Ljubljanica, runs on the surface, while during low water stages it disappears underground beneath the Javorniki hills and runs directly towards the Planina polje. During extensive precipitation, the water stage of the karstic water rises and fills the bottoms of depressions, creating short-term lakes. More than 15 of these lakes are known. The seasonal occurrence of a massive population of the Chirocephalus croaticus fairy shrimp is especially interesting.

The Postojna Karst has played an important role in the development of speleology and karstology. The role of the Postojna Cave is especially important. The first visits to the Postojna Cave were recorded in After the discovery of the interior sections of the Postojna Cave in , the interest in karst and cave exploration increased significantly.

The development of speleobiology began after the surprising discovery of the blind Leptodirus hochenwartii beetle in and the transition from random finds to active exploration. The arrangement of the Postojna Cave for tourism purposes represented an important promotion of the entire Classical Karst. There are numerous poljes in the Classical Karst, which are representatives of karst formations in various stages of geological development. All poljes are polygenic and polyphase.

In the central highest part of the Classical Karst, a narrow belt of a lower relief was created along the ldrija fault zone where the poljes are located in a series and are in contact with the karst water table.

The most representative poljes are the Cerknica polje Cerknisko polje and the Planina polje, while a special feature is the Pivka intermittent lakes, which represent a polje in the final development stage. The development of closed karst depressions such as poljes is the result of tectonics and accelerated corrosion that was influenced by the geological structures and the specific hydrological networks. This is especially reflected in long-lasting seasonal flooding and other karst water phenomena such as springs, ponors, estavels, sinkholes, active caves, and occasional and perennial surface-running flow.

All the water elements of the poljes of the ldrija fault zone in the area under consideration are part of the hydrological network of the karst Ljubljanica. Poljes are rich in vegetation that is characteristic of this environment and adapted to different water stages floods and droughts. Planina polje is an overflow polje that is 6 km long and 2 km wide. The depression is 50 m deep and encompasses 16 km2 of the flat surface with a height above sea level of m.

On the south-western side, it has two narrow pocket valleys and represents the most important confluence of the groundwaters in the river basin of the Ljubljanica River.

Floods begin during high water stages in the karst and last up to several months per year. There were attempts at regulating the regular floods on the Planina polje as early as in the first half of the h century. The so-called Putick's wells deepened and walled-in sinkholes in the form of wells from the period prior to the First World War have been preserved.

In the north-westernmost part of the floodplain meadows is the habitat of the Amethyst Meadow Squill Scilla litardierel , which is endemic to the Dinaric poljes; the wild gladiolus Gladiolus illyricus and various other less noteworthy plants also grow here. The Cerknica polje Cerknisko polje is a typical polje with the largest and most characteristic intermittent lake in Slovenia.

This is where the cave salamander was found that was the basis for its scientific name Proteus anguinus Laurenti The bottom is flooded for a few months each year, namely in the fall, winter and spring. The area of the bottom of the Cerknica polje is 38 km 2 and lies at a height above sea level of around m. When the intermittent lake is full, it encompasses 26 km 2 and is Most of the karst hydrological phenomena have developed here.

The water runs off from the ponors directly into the springs of the Ljubljanica River or towards Rakov Skocjan. The Krizna Cave Krizna jama lies in the catchment area of Cerknica lake, which is known for flowstone dams that form a total of 47 lakes, numerous fossilised remains of the cave bear Ursus spelaeus and great biodiversity. The unusual hydrological characteristics of the Cerknica polje piqued the interest of experts as early as in the h century, while the lake became well-known from Valvasor's descriptions from Numerous plans for the exploitation of the lake have been drawn up in the past.

The first plans for draining the lake were mentioned by Hacquet in , while plans were later produced for building a dam and creating a permanent lake. Several smaller land reclamation efforts were made, as well as other interventions, but the lake nevertheless remains in a relatively natural state.

Rakov Skocjan is a roughly 1. The permanent flow of the Rak River runs through the valley and springs from the Zelske jame caves. The Zelske ame caves are approximately 5 km long and terminate under the Velika Sujica collapse doline, at the bottom of which the Karlovice cave system terminates on the other side.

The Karlovice cave system is the main subterranean outflow of the Cerknica polje. In the surroundings of the entrance to the Zelske jame caves, there are numerous collapse do lines, one of which features a preserved 60 m tall Small Natural Bridge Mali naravni most over the collapse doline.

Downstream, the valley widens and numerous springs feed the Rak River. The valley narrows at the Large Natural Bridge Veliki naravni most , and the Rak River disappears into the Tkalca jama Cave, from which water runs into the Planina Cave where the subterranean confluence of the rivers Rak and Pivka is located. The Rakov Skocjan valley was created by the collapse of a large cave system that was located just beneath the surface.

Only the outlet and inlet caves, which are connected by the Rak River on the surface depending on the karstic water table, remain of the said system. The Kras Plateau got its name from the domestic name for the rocky, poorly-fertile landscape; i. Its German name "karst" was therefore accepted as the scientific name for a special type of landscape that developed in carbonate rock. This area also gave names to a set of professional terms for numerous karst phenomena such as doline and polje.

The terms karst, karstic and karstology have become part of the national scientific vocabulary. Classical Karst unites a geographically rounded off area of carbonate rock, the globally most recognisable type of karst, lying in temperate latitudes of a wet climatic zone with preserved characteristics of natural phenomena, which represents an outstanding universal value. The typical characteristics of natural phenomena, their genesis and the multi-century history of the research of the karst and karst phenomena have introduced the karst terminology into scientific nomenclature.

The exceptional features of the Classical Karst, which is part of the Dinaric Karst, lies in the connection and combination of lithology and geological structure. The diverse combinations of thrust units from carbonate and poorly permeable rock have created hydrogeological barriers and conditions for the occurrence of poljes.

The intertwinement of the surface and underground action of water and the associated chemical processes have enabled deep karstification. The exceptional nature of karst caves is exhibited in the variety on a global scale that results from the different types inactive caves, active caves, cave complexes, shafts, spring caves, etc.

The variety is also exhibited by the quantity of cave passages with flowstone formations, types of flowstone and its forms stalactites, stalagmites, curtains, cave pearls, etc. The importance of cave sediments for scientific research should also be specifically highlighted. Based on the carbon dating of the said sediments, the age of the caves was determined and the dynamics of the development of the karst scientifically explained.

The oldest scientifically dated flowstone is between 3 and 4 million years old and comes from several locations in the Podgrad lowland and above the groundwater flow of the Reka River. The series of blind valleys in the Podgrad lowland is a unique and best preserved example of such geological formations in the karst on the global scale.

All the surface and subterranean karst features of the moderate climate zone have developed in the Classical Karst, including macro and mezzo poljes, uvalas, collapse dolines, dolines, dry valleys, blind and pocket valleys, ponors, karst springs, estavels and caves , as well as micro rillenkarren, karren and solution pans. The uniqueness of Classical Karst is also multifaceted in speleobiological terms. The first troglobitic species Laurenti, Schmidt were discovered in the Classical Karst; the first speleobiological monograph Schioedte, was written about the caves in the Classical Karst; based on this, the first eco classifications of subterranean fauna were designed.

The relative density of troglobitic species within the scope of the broader Dinaric area is also highest here in global terms, and the exceptional density of the Coleoptera or beetles is up to 20 species per 20 km 2 , making it the richest cave system in terms of fauna with over troglobitic species.

The conditions in the Classical Karst have provided excellent opportunities for evolutionary research and insight into the creation of subterranean fauna. Criterion vii : Ever since antiquity, numerous explorers and experts have depicted this dramatic landscape with caves, water bodies and poljes. Karst features and phenomena are preserved in their natural state, as is the landscape as a whole. The aesthetic value of this area has been formed through centuries of co-habitation and dependence between man and nature.

The Classical Karst represents an example of a typical karst landscape where the shortage of arable land and water has prevented the intensive use of space. The global recognition of the Classical Karst was strongly affected by the development of cave tourism that builds on the extraordinary natural beauty and aesthetic value of karst caves.

Criterion viii : The geological development of Classical Karst is closely tied to the dynamic events on the carbonate platform and the intense tectonic processes that have affected the development of the surface. Recent research even shows that particular types of karst geomorphology are tied to particular types of tectonics. Classical Karst represents an area of pioneering tectomorphogenic-speleogenic karstological and historical research.

The Karst features special and typical hydrological conditions -underground runoff and corresponding special hydrological phenomena.

These phenomena are highly diverse in the Classical Karst and include karst springs, great and deep vaucluse springs. One of the exceptional springs is the Gabranca Spring near Neverke water rises more than m.

Hydrological phenomena also include estavels and various types of ponors, ranging from alluvial to large inlet caves such as the more than 20 km long Postojna Cave. Groundwater connections between disappearing streams and the nearby poljes are especially interesting.

The connections are frequently very complex and take the form of networks, including surface and underground bifurcations where water runs off to different springs during different water stages. The distances between ponors and springs can be very long such as the one between the Skocjan Caves Skocjanske jame and the springs of the Timavo which is around 35 km. Poljes are a special phenomenon from the hydrogeological point of view as well. The Cerknica polje is an intermittently flooded polje -an intermittent lake -and represents and includes karst features and phenomena characteristics of poljes and karst depressions, as well as all the characteristics of the karst relief.

Around 6, caves have been explored in the Classical Karst. A high share of cave systems confirms that the karst processes have developed in all directions. Some caves have an outstanding aesthetic value considering the extensively branched cave passages and the variety of the speleothem inventory. An important relief feature of the Classical Karst is the blind valleys that occur at the contact of the surface non-karst and karst river networks.

The formation of the relief at ponors reflects the situations in the karst at the time of the development of features and serves as a diagnostic relief feature. The series of blind valleys in Brkini is among the best examples of this karst phenomena. Criterion ix : The long-term development of Classical Karst without any interruptions is also reflected in its rich subterranean fauna.

Biological research of the underground world, i. This is where the type localities of the first known cave-dwelling animals, the cave salamander Proteus anguinus Laurenti and the beetle Leptodirus hochenwartii Schmidt are located.

The Postojna-Pianina cave system is also the richest cave system in the world with more than 1 00 troglobitic species. Quite a few Pleistocene animals cave bear, cave lion, hyena and others have been preserved in caves. Caves also serve as an important occasional dwelling or refuge for larger forest animals such as dormice, bats, badgers, foxes and bears.

The history of the deforestation and reforestation of the Karst with the accompanying opening of new habitats is especially interesting and instructive. Criterion x : Caves and extensive systems of fissures in karstified rock serve as a habitat for a diverse troglobitic fauna. These animals are able to feed on the elements of the relatively extensive bioproduction on the surface, which enter the underground along with the relatively large quantities of infiltrating water.

Various habitat types are present in the Classical Karst: surface, intermittently flooded and aquatic habitats, as well as intermediate habitats underground-surface.

Intermediate habitats are also settled by certain troglobitic and troglophile species. Certain sessile and mostly filter feeding troglobitic animals such as cnidarians Velkovrhia enigmatica , the Marifugia cavatica tube worm and Congeria kusceri.

The first troglobites from the Classical Karst to be described were: the cave salamander Proteus anguinus from Cerknica Lake; the beetle Leptodirus hochenwartii from the Postojna Cave and a whole range of others. The surface fauna is rich here. Its special members include large forest mammals, including large predators, wetland birds, vertebrates in rocky habitats and invertebrates from aquatic and surface semi-subterranean "cryptic" habitats springs, soil.

The variety of flora in the karst is first and foremost dependent on the interaction between the climatic, edaphic, hydrological and orographic conditions throughout geological history.

An important factor that contributes to the high level of fauna diversity in the Classical Karst is also the relatively small human impact owing to the low density of settlement and land use type that includes pastoralism and the exploitation of forests.

On the other hand, the karst was also the hub for numerous groups of plants before, during and after the ice ages. The Western Balkans were one of the flora refuges during glaciation. All of these factors -independently or jointly -have shaped the especially extensive diversity of karst flora and vegetation. Even though many original landscapes have experienced different levels of ecosystem disruption, the exceptional local and regional diversity of vegetation and flora has been preserved.

Through deforestation in prehistoric times, humans have even contributed to the diversification of the flora by opening up space for the occurrence or expansion of habitats that are today perceived as natural dry meadows, rock flora. Declining estrogen levels appear to trigger aggressive high-risk breast cancer in women with the KRAS -variant. If you are a woman 40 years or older, you might be eligible for our study. Sign up below to be invited to our study and help us find better answers.

Yes, I would. Name This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Phone This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Do you know someone who can help our study?